Space Weather

The Space Weather of Proxima Centauri b

The Space Weather of Proxima Centauri b

A planet orbiting in the "habitable zone" of our closest neighboring star, Proxima Centauri, has recently been discovered, and the next natural question is whether or not Proxima b is "habitable".

Space Weather

Astrobiological Effects of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Milky Way Galaxy

Astrobiological Effects of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Milky Way Galaxy

A planet having protective ozone within the collimated beam of a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) may suffer ozone depletion, potentially causing a mass extinction event to existing life on a planet's surface and oceans.

Proxima Centauri b

The Pale Green Dot: A Method to Characterize Proxima Centauri b using Exo-Aurorae

The Pale Green Dot: A Method to Characterize Proxima Centauri b using Exo-Aurorae

We examine the feasibility of detecting auroral emission from the potentially habitable exoplanet Proxima Centauri b.

Astrogeology

Yorkshire Salt Mine Could Help Shed Light on Martian Life

Yorkshire Salt Mine Could Help Shed Light on Martian Life

A PhD student from the University of Leicester is helping to shed light on life on Mars by exploring similar environments on Earth -- including an underground salt mine in North Yorkshire.

Astrogeology

Life in Ancient Oceans Enabled By Erosion From Land

Life in Ancient Oceans Enabled By Erosion From Land

As scientists continue finding evidence for life in the ocean more than 3 billion years ago, those ancient fossils pose a paradox.

Europa

Probing for Evidence of Plumes on Europa with HST/STIS

Probing for Evidence of Plumes on Europa with HST/STIS

Roth et al (2014a) reported evidence for plumes of water venting from a southern high latitude region on Europa - spectroscopic detection of off-limb line emission from the dissociation products of water.

Extrasolar Planets

The Abundance of Atmospheric CO2 in Ocean Exoplanets: A Novel CO2 Deposition Mechanism

The Abundance of Atmospheric CO2 in Ocean Exoplanets: A Novel CO2 Deposition Mechanism

We consider super-Earth sized planets which have a water mass fraction that is large enough to form an external mantle composed of high pressure water ice polymorphs and that lack a substantial H/He atmosphere.

Astrochemistry

Systematic Theoretical Study on the Interstellar Carbon Chain Molecules

Systematic Theoretical Study on the Interstellar Carbon Chain Molecules

In an effort to further our interest in understanding basic chemistry of interstellar molecules, we carry out here an extensive investigation of the stabilities of interstellar carbon chains; Cn, H2Cn, HCnN and CnX (X=N, O, Si, S, H, P, H-, N-).

Extremeophiles and Extreme Environments

Tardigrade Radiation Protection Gene Discovered

Tardigrade Radiation Protection Gene Discovered

A new water bear protein can protect the DNA of human cultured cells from otherwise lethal amounts of radiation damage, say a group of Japanese researchers, providing part of the answer to why tardigrades can live in deadly conditions.

Astrogeology

Earthquakes, Marsquakes, and the Possibility of Life

Earthquakes, Marsquakes, and the Possibility of Life

A new study shows that rocks formed by the grinding together of other rocks during earthquakes are rich in trapped hydrogen -- a finding that suggests similar seismic activity on Mars may produce enough hydrogen to support life.

Astrochemistry

Photochemistry and Astrochemistry: Photochemical Pathways to Interstellar Complex Organic Molecules

Photochemistry and Astrochemistry: Photochemical Pathways to Interstellar Complex Organic Molecules

The interstellar medium is characterized by a rich and diverse chemistry. Many of its complex organic molecules are proposed to form through radical chemistry in icy grain mantles.

More top stories from September.